Complex Systems

What is a complex system?

A complex system is a system comprised of many components which are interconnected to each other. Some of the examples of complex systems are Earth’s global climate, organisms, the human brain, infrastructure such as transportation, communication systems, power grid, complex software and electronic systems, social and economic organizations (like cities), an ecosystem, a living cell, and ultimately the entire galaxy.

Who invented complex systems?

It was founded by Stephen Wolfram in 1987 as part of his work in launching the field of complex system research.

Where is it applied, and what is its domain?

One of the most thriving and stunning research areas in physics nowadays is the physics of complex systems or the theory of complexity. For now, there is not a single and straightforward meaning attributed to this buzzword due to its ambiguity and polysemy. However, one of the interesting points is the methods and tools that the theory gives that can be eventually applied to many different domains, ranging from physics, chemistry, biology, applied sciences, and even social sciences.

Why is a complex system important?

This is important because this developing new science reduces traditional scientific boundaries, building new and briefer paths between scientists and stimulating the flow of scientific knowledge, complex systems science links the natural and social sciences, enriching both, and decreasing the gap between science, engineering, and policy.

What is a complex system strategy?

Complex system strategy is also known as Complexity theory and organizations which is used to study the complexity of systems in the field of strategic management and organizational studies. It bonds from research in the natural sciences that examines uncertainty and non-linearity.

I think now you all have got answers to most of your questions…

Let us now discuss the five traits of a Complex System:-

  1. The first thing is to understand hierarchy structure which means any complex system can be decomposed into various minor sub-systems which are correlated.
  2. The relative Primitive nature of a complex system suggests that the choice of what components in a system are fundamental and it is somewhat arbitrary and it depends mostly on how the observer sees it.

For example – if we see a pill we would be only able to recognize its size, color, appearance, and name, while a pharmacist could recognize its chemical structure and detailed elements.

  1. Let’s now understand the third attribute is the separation of concerns, it is a principle used in programming to segregate an application into units, with the tiniest overlapping between the functions of the individual units. It is attained using modularization, encapsulation, and arrangement in software layers. It is important to separate high-frequency dynamics and low-frequency dynamics.
  2. let’s jump on the next attribute which is Common Patterns. It means complex systems have common patterns.

Let me make you understand with a basic example when you step into a forest, a lot of trees, flowers, or any other plants that come to your eyes all have the same pattern root, stem, and leaves. So, these main elements form several types of plants around you, and so do complex systems.

  1. The fifth and last characteristic of complex systems says that complex systems will evolve from simple systems much more quickly if there are stable intermediate forms. For example, if you want to design a marketing website you must require product lists, sales carts, and basic payment modules to form elementary use cases initially and then evolve the system based on the feedback from users, enhancing refined features to uplift user experiences.

And that’s how a complex system evolves, if a stable intermediate doesn’t exist, a product might be in an unstable state and might risk failure.


My central goal in introducing you to this topic is to highlight some complex systems that can be found in the environment, I indicated that the term “complex” yield different definition of a complex system.

In the above definition, it has been shown that even if the large system is decomposed into subsystems, the complexity stays sharp. The variability of numerous measured variables illustrates the evolution of the system. So, now you must have understood a lot about the topic and it’s time to adieu.

2 responses to “Complex Systems”

  1. A complex system is an arrangement of a great number of related but various elements with intricate relationships and interconnections.
    I think we can add more but
    Heavy dose in sort injection

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